Thursday, July 31, 2008

Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews

Antiquities of the Jews, XI, 8.1 - XII, 1.1

1. ABOUT this time it was that Philip, king of Macedon, was treacherously assaulted and slain at Egae by Pausanias, the son of Cerastes, who was derived from the family of Oreste, and his son Alexander succeeded him in the kingdom; who, passing over the Hellespont, overcame the generals of Darius's army in a battle fought at Granicum. So he marched over Lydia, and subdued Ionia, and overran Caria, and fell upon the places of Pamphylia, as has been related elsewhere...
3. About this time it was that Darius heard how Alexander had passed over the Hellespont, and had beaten his lieutenants in the battle at Granicum, and was proceeding further; whereupon he gathered together an army of horse and foot, and determined that he would meet the Macedonians before they should assault and conquer all Asia. So he passed over the river Euphrates, and came over Taurus, the Cilician mountain, and at Issus of Cilicia he waited for the enemy, as ready there to give him battle. Upon which Sanballat was glad that Darius was come down; and told Manasseh that he would suddenly perform his promises to him, and this as soon as ever Darius should come back, after he had beaten his enemies; for not he only, but all those that were in Asia also, were persuaded that the Macedonians would not so much as come to a battle with the Persians, on account of their multitude. But the event proved otherwise than they expected; for the king joined battle with the Macedonians, and was beaten, and lost a great part of his army. His mother also, and his wife and children, were taken captives, and he fled into Persia. So Alexander came into Syria, and took Damascus; and when he had obtained Sidon, he besieged Tyre, when he sent all epistle to the Jewish high priest, to send him some auxiliaries, and to supply his army with provisions; and that what presents he formerly sent to Darius, he would now send to him, and choose the friendship of the Macedonians, and that he should never repent of so doing.

1. NOW when Alexander, king of Macedon, had put an end to the dominion of the Persians, and had settled the affairs in Judea after the forementioned manner, he ended his life. And as his government fell among many, Antigonus obtained Asia, Seleucus Babylon; and of the other nations which were there, Lysimachus governed the Hellespont, and Cassander possessed Macedonia; as did Ptolemy the son of Lagus seize upon Egypt. And while these princes ambitiously strove one against another, every one for his own principality, it came to pass that there were continual wars, and those lasting wars too; and the cities were sufferers, and lost a great many of their inhabitants in these times of distress, insomuch that all Syria, by the means of Ptolemy the son of Lagus, underwent the reverse of that denomination of Savior, which he then had. He also seized upon Jerusalem, and for that end made use of deceit and treachery; for as he came into the city on a sabbath day, as if he would offer sacrifices he, without any trouble, gained the city, while the Jews did not oppose him, for they did not suspect him to be their enemy; and he gained it thus, because they were free from suspicion of him, and because on that day they were at rest and quietness; and when he had gained it, he ruled over it in a cruel manner. Nay, Agatharchides of Cnidus, who wrote the acts of Alexander's successors, reproaches us with superstition, as if we, by it, had lost our liberty; where he says thus: "There is a nation called the nation of the Jews, who inhabit a city strong and great, named Jerusalem. These men took no care, but let it come into the hands of Ptolemy, as not willing to take arms, and thereby they submitted to be under a hard master, by reason of their unseasonable superstition." This is what Agatharchides relates of our nation.

Иосиф Флавий. Иудейскиe древности. Перевод Г.Г. Генкеля. "Крон-пресс", 1996. Репринт от Санкт-Петербург, 1900.

Monday, July 21, 2008

The Maccabees 1

The First Book of the Maccabees

ΚΑΙ ἐγένετο μετὰ τὸ πατάξαι ᾿Αλέξανδρον τὸν Φιλίππου τὸν Μακεδόνα, ὃς ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τῆς γῆς Χεττειείμ, καὶ ἐπάταξε τὸν Δαρεῖον βασιλέα Περσῶν καὶ Μήδων καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἀντ᾿ αὐτοῦ πρότερος ἐπὶ τὴν ῾Ελλάδα. 2 καὶ συνεστήσατο πολέμους πολλοὺς καὶ ἐκράτησεν ὀχυρωμάτων πολλῶν καὶ ἔσφαξε βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς· 3 καὶ διῆλθεν ἕως ἄκρων τῆς γῆς καὶ ἔλαβε σκῦλα πλήθους ἐθνῶν. καὶ ἡσύχασεν ἡ γῆ ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ὑψώθη, καὶ ἐπήρθη ἡ καρδία αὐτοῦ. 4 καὶ συνήγαγε δύναμιν ἰσχυρὰν σφόδρα καὶ ἦρξε χωρῶν καὶ ἐθνῶν καὶ τυράννων, καὶ ἐγένοντο αὐτῷ εἰς φόρον. 5 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὴν κοίτην καὶ ἔγνω ὅτι ἀποθνήσκει. 6 καὶ ἐκάλεσε τοὺς παῖδας αὐτοῦ τοὺς ἐνδόξους τοὺς συντρόφους αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ νεότητος καὶ διεῖλεν αὐτοῖς τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ ἔτι ζῶντος αὐτοῦ. 7 καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ᾿Αλέξανδρος ἔτη δώδεκα καὶ ἀπέθανε. 8 καὶ ἐπεκράτησαν οἱ παῖδες αὐτοῦ ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ τόπῳ αὐτοῦ. 9 καὶ ἐπέθεντο πάντες διαδήματα μετὰ τὸ ἀποθανεῖν αὐτὸν καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτῶν ὀπίσω αὐτῶν ἔτη πολλὰ καὶ ἐπλήθυναν κακὰ ἐν τῇ γῇ. 10 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτῶν ρίζα ἁμαρτωλὸς ᾿Αντίοχος ᾿Επιφανής, υἱὸς ᾿Αντιόχου βασιλέως, ὃς ἦν ὅμηρα ἐν τῇ Ρώμῃ· καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἐν ἔτει ἑκατοστῷ καὶ τριακοστῷ καὶ ἑβδόμῳ βασιλείας ῾Ελλήνων.
13 καὶ προεθυμήθησάν τινες ἀπὸ τοῦ λαοῦ, καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα, καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν ποιῆσαι τὰ δικαιώματα τῶν ἐθνῶν. 14 καὶ ᾠκοδόμησαν γυμνάσιον ἐν ῾Ιεροσολύμοις κατὰ τὰ νόμιμα τῶν ἐθνῶν 15 καὶ ἐποίησαν ἑαυτοῖς ἀκροβυστίας καὶ ἀπέστησαν ἀπὸ διαθήκης ἁγίας καὶ ἐζευγίσθησαν τοῖς ἔθνεσι καὶ ἐπράθησαν τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ πονηρόν.
47 καὶ οἰκοδομῆσαι βωμοὺς καὶ τεμένη καὶ εἰδωλεῖα καὶ θύειν ὕεια καὶ κτήνη κοινὰ 48 καὶ ἀφιέναι τοὺς υἱοὺς αὐτῶν ἀπεριτμήτους, βδελύξαι τὰς ψυχὰς αὐτῶν ἐν παντὶ ἀκαθάρτῳ καὶ βεβηλώσει...

ΚΑΙ ὁ βασιλεὺς ᾿Αντίοχος διεπορεύετο τὰς ἐπάνω χώρας καὶ ἤκουσεν ὅτι ἐστὶν ᾿Ελυμαΐς ἐν τῇ Περσίδι πόλις ἔνδοξος πλούτῳ ἀργυρίῳ τε καὶ χρυσίῳ· 2 καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ πλούσιον σφόδρα, καὶ ἐκεῖ καλύμματα χρυσᾶ καὶ θώρακες καὶ ὅπλα, ἃ κατέλιπεν ἐκεῖ ᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ Φιλίππου βασιλεὺς ὁ Μακεδών, ὃς ἐβασίλευσε πρῶτος ἐν τοῖς ῞Ελλησι.

ΕΤΟΥΣ ἑνὸς καὶ πεντηκοστοῦ καὶ ἑκατοστοῦ ἐξῆλθε Δημήτριος ὁ τοῦ Σελεύκου ἐκ Ρώμης καὶ ἀνέβη σὺν ἀνδράσιν ὀλίγοις εἰς πόλιν παραθαλασσίαν καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἐκεῖ.

ΚΑΙ ἤκουσεν ᾿Ιούδας τὸ ὄνομα τῶν Ρωμαίων, ὅτι εἰσὶ δυνατοὶ ἰσχύϊ καὶ αὐτοὶ εὐδοκοῦσιν ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς προστιθεμένοις αὐτοῖς, καὶ ὅσοι ἂν προσέλθωσιν αὐτοῖς, ἱστῶσιν αὐτοῖς φιλίαν, 2 καὶ ὅτι εἰσὶ δυνατοὶ ἰσχύϊ. καὶ διηγήσαντο αὐτῷ τοὺς πολέμους αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς ἀνδραγαθίας, ἃς ποιοῦσιν ἐν τοῖς Γαλάταις, καὶ ὅτι κατεκράτησαν αὐτῶν καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτοὺς ὑπὸ φόρον, 3 καὶ ὅσα ἐποίησαν ἐν χώρᾳ ῾Ισπανίας τοῦ κατακρατῆσαι τῶν μετάλλων τοῦ ἀργυρίου καὶ τοῦ χρυσίου τοῦ ἐκεῖ· 4 καὶ κατεκράτησαν τοῦ τόπου παντὸς τῇ βουλῇ αὐτῶν καὶ τῇ μακροθυμίᾳ, καὶ ὁ τόπος ἦν μακρὰν ἀπέχων ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν σφόδρα, καὶ τῶν βασιλέων τῶν ἐπελθόντων ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρου τῆς γῆς ἕως συνέτριψαν αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐπάταξαν ἐν αὐτοῖς πληγὴν μεγάλην, καὶ οἱ ἐπίλοιποι διδόασιν αὐτοῖς φόρον κατ᾿ ἐνιαυτόν· 5 καὶ τὸν Φίλιππον καὶ τὸν Περσέα Κιτιέων βασιλέα καὶ τοὺς ἐπῃρμένους ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς συνέτριψαν αὐτοὺς ἐν πολέμῳ καὶ κατεκράτησαν αὐτῶν· 6 καὶ ᾿Αντίοχον τὸν μέγαν βασιλέα τῆς ᾿Ασίας τὸν πορευθέντα ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς εἰς πόλεμον ἔχοντα ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν ἐλέφαντας καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἅρματα καὶ δύναμιν πολλὴν σφόδρα, καὶ συνετρίβη ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν, 7 καὶ ἔλαβον αὐτὸν ζῶντα καὶ ἔστησαν αὐτοῖς διδόναι αὐτόν τε καὶ τοὺς βασιλεύοντας μετ᾿ αὐτὸν φόρον μέγαν καὶ διδόναι ὅμηρα καὶ διαστολὴν 8 καὶ χώραν τὴν ᾿Ινδικὴν καὶ Μηδίαν καὶ Λυδίαν καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν καλλίστων χωρῶν αὐτῶν, καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὰς παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἔδωκαν αὐτὰς Εὐμένει τῷ βασιλεῖ· 9 καὶ ὅτι οἱ ἐκ τῆς ῾Ελλάδος ἐβουλεύσαντο ἐλθεῖν καὶ ἐξᾶραι αὐτούς, 10 καὶ ἐγνώσθη ὁ λόγος αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἀπέστειλαν ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς στρατηγὸν ἕνα καὶ ἐπολέμησαν πρὸς αὐτούς, καὶ ἔπεσον ἐξ αὐτῶν τραυματίαι πολλοί, καὶ ᾐχμαλώτευσαν τὰς γυναῖκας αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπρονόμευσαν αὐτοὺς καὶ κατεκράτησαν τῆς γῆς αὐτῶν καὶ καθεῖλον τὰ ὀχυρώματα αὐτῶν καὶ κατεδουλώσαντο αὐτοὺς ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης· 11 καὶ τὰς ἐπιλοίπους βασιλείας καὶ τὰς νήσους, ὅσοι ποτὲ ἀντέστησαν αὐτοῖς, κατέφθειραν καὶ ἐδούλωσαν αὐτούς, 12 μετὰ δὲ τῶν φίλων αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν ἐπαναπαυομένων αὐτοῖς συνετήρησαν φιλίαν· καὶ κατεκράτησαν τῶν βασιλειῶν τῶν ἐγγὺς καὶ τῶν μακράν, καὶ ὅσοι ἤκουον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτῶν, ἐφοβοῦντο ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν. 13 ὅσοις δ᾿ ἂν βούλωνται βοηθεῖν καὶ βασιλεύειν, βασιλεύουσιν· οὓς δ᾿ ἂν βούλωνται, μεθιστῶσι· καὶ ὑψώθησαν σφόδρα. 14 καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις οὐκ ἐπέθετο οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν διάδημα καὶ οὐ περιεβάλοντο πορφύραν ὥστε ἁδρυνθῆναι ἐν αὐτῇ· 15 καὶ βουλευτήριον ἐποίησαν ἑαυτοῖς, καὶ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ἐβουλεύοντο τριακόσιοι καὶ εἴκοσι βουλευόμενοι διαπαντὸς περὶ τοῦ πλήθους τοῦ εὐκοσμεῖν αὐτούς· 16 καὶ πιστεύουσιν ἑνὶ ἀνθρώπῳ τὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτῶν κατ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν καὶ κυριεύειν πάσης τῆς γῆς αὐτῶν, καὶ πάντες ἀκούουσι τοῦ ἑνός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι φθόνος οὐδὲ ζῆλος ἐν αὐτοῖς. 17 καὶ ἐπέλεξεν ᾿Ιούδας τὸν Εὐπόλεμον υἱὸν ᾿Ιωάννου τοῦ ᾿Ακκὼς καὶ ᾿Ιάσονα υἱὸν ᾿Ελεαζάρου καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς εἰς Ρώμην στῆσαι αὐτοῖς φιλίαν καὶ συμμαχίαν 18 καὶ τοῦ ἆραι τὸν ζυγὸν ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν, ὅτι εἶδον τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν ῾Ελλήνων καταδουλουμένους τὸν ᾿Ισραὴλ δουλείᾳ. 19 καὶ ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς Ρώμην, καὶ ἡ ὁδὸς πολλὴ σφόδρα, καὶ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸ βουλευτήριον καὶ ἀπεκρίθησαν καὶ εἶπον·

ΚΑΙ ἐν ἔτει ἑξηκοστῷ καὶ ἑκατοστῷ ἀνέβη ᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ τοῦ ᾿Αντιόχου ὁ ᾿Επιφανὴς καὶ κατελάβετο Πτολεμαΐδα, καὶ ἐπεδέξαντο αὐτόν, καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἐκεῖ. 2 καὶ ἤκουσε Δημήτριος ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ συνήγαγε δυνάμεις πολλὰς σφόδρα καὶ ἐξῆλθεν εἰς συνάντησιν αὐτῷ εἰς πόλεμον.
48 Καὶ συνήγαγεν ᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ βασιλεὺς δυνάμεις μεγάλας καὶ παρενέβαλεν ἐξεναντίας Δημητρίου. 49 καὶ συνῆψαν πόλεμον οἱ δύο βασιλεῖς, καὶ ἔφυγεν ἡ παρεμβολὴ Δημητρίου, καὶ ἐδίωξεν αὐτὸν ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος καὶ ἴσχυσεν ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς. 50 καὶ ἐστερέωσε τὸν πόλεμον σφόδρα, ἕως ἔδυ ὁ ἥλιος, καὶ ἔπεσεν ὁ Δημήτριος ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. 51 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν ᾿Αλέξανδρος πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον βασιλέα Αἰγύπτου πρέσβεις κατὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους λέγων· 52 «᾿Επεὶ ἀνέστρεψα εἰς γῆν βασιλείας μου καὶ ἐκάθισα ἐπὶ θρόνου πατέρων μου καὶ ἐκράτησα τῆς ἀρχῆς, καὶ συνέτριψα τὸν Δημήτριον καὶ ἐπεκράτησα τῆς χώρας ἡμῶν 53 καὶ συνῆψα πρὸς αὐτὸν μάχην, καὶ συνετρίβη αὐτὸς καὶ ἡ παρεμβολὴ αὐτοῦ ὑφ᾿ ἡμῶν, καὶ ἐκαθίσαμεν ἐπὶ θρόνου βασιλείας αὐτοῦ· 54 καὶ νῦν στήσωμεν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς φιλίαν, καὶ νῦν δός μοι τὴν θυγατέρα σου εἰς γυναῖκα, καὶ ἐπιγαμβρεύσω σοι καὶ δώσω σοι δόματα καὶ αὐτῇ ἄξιά σου». 55 Καὶ ἀπεκρίθη Πτολεμαῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς λέγων· «᾿Αγαθὴ ἡμέρα, ἐν ᾗ ἀνέστρεψας εἰς γῆν πατέρων σου καὶ ἐκάθισας ἐπὶ θρόνου βασιλείας αὐτῶν. 56 καὶ νῦν ποιήσω σοι ἃ ἔγραψας, ἀλλ᾿ ἀπάντησον εἰς Πτολεμαΐδα, ὅπως ἴδωμεν ἀλλήλους, καὶ ἐπιγαμβρεύσω σοι, καθὼς εἴρηκας».

12 καὶ ἀφελόμενος αὐτοῦ τὴν θυγατέρα ἔδωκεν αὐτὴν τῷ Δημητρίῳ καὶ ἠλλοτριώθη τῷ ᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ καὶ ἐφάνη ἡ ἔχθρα αὐτῶν. 13 καὶ εἰσῆλθε Πτολεμαῖος εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν καὶ περιέθετο τὸ διάδημα τῆς ᾿Ασίας· καὶ περιέθετο δύο διαδήματα περὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ, τὸ τῆς ᾿Ασίας καὶ Αἰγύπτου. 14 ᾿Αλέξανδρος δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἦν ἐν Κιλικίᾳ κατὰ τοὺς καιροὺς ἐκείνους, ὅτι ἀπεστάτουν οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν τόπων ἐκείνων. 15 καὶ ἤκουσεν ᾿Αλέξανδρος καὶ ἦλθεν ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν πολέμῳ. καὶ ἐξήγαγε Πτολεμαῖος τὴν δύναμιν καὶ ἀπήντησεν αὐτῷ ἐν χειρὶ ἰσχυρᾷ καὶ ἐτροπώσατο αὐτόν. 16 καὶ ἔφυγεν ᾿Αλέξανδρος εἰς τὴν ᾿Αραβίαν τοῦ σκεπασθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ. ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς Πτολεμαῖος ὑψώθη. 17 καὶ ἀφεῖλε Ζαβδιὴλ ὁ ῎Αραψ τὴν κεφαλὴν ᾿Αλεξάνδρου καὶ ἀπέστειλε τῷ Πτολεμαίῳ. 18 καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς Πτολεμαῖος ἀπέθανεν ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ, καὶ οἱ ὄντες ἐν τοῖς ὀχυρώμασιν ἀπώλοντο ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν τοῖς ὀχυρώμασι. 19 καὶ ἐβασίλευσε Δημήτριος ἔτους ἑβδόμου καὶ ἑξηκοστοῦ καὶ ἑκατοστοῦ.

5 Καὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἀντίγραφον τῶν ἐπιστολῶν ὧν ἔγραψεν ᾿Ιωνάθαν τοῖς Σπαρτιάταις· 6 «᾿Ιωνάθαν ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ ἡ γερουσία τοῦ ἔθνους καὶ οἱ ἱερεῖς καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς δῆμος τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων Σπαρτιάταις τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς χαίρειν. 7 ἔτι πρότερον ἀπεστάλησαν ἐπιστολαὶ πρὸς ᾿Ονίαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα παρὰ Δαρείου τοῦ βασιλεύοντος ἐν ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐστὲ ἀδελφοὶ ἡμῶν, ὡς τὸ ἀντίγραφον ὑπόκειται. 8 καὶ ἐπεδέξατο ᾿Ονίας τὸν ἄνδρα τὸν ἀπεσταλμένον ἐνδόξως καὶ ἔλαβε τὰς ἐπιστολάς, ἐν αἷς διεσαφεῖτο περὶ συμμαχίας καὶ φιλίας.
19 Καὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἀντίγραφον τῶν ἐπιστολῶν, ὧν ἀπέστειλαν ᾿Ονίᾳ· 20 «῎Αρειος βασιλεὺς Σπαρτιατῶν ᾿Ονίᾳ ἱερεῖ μεγάλῳ χαίρειν. 21 εὑρέθη ἐν γραφῇ περί τε τῶν Σπαρτιατῶν καὶ ᾿Ιουδαίων, ὅτι εἰσὶν ἀδελφοὶ καὶ ὅτι εἰσὶν ἐκ γένους ῾Αβραάμ. 22 καὶ νῦν ἀφ᾿ οὗ ἔγνωμεν ταῦτα, καλῶς ποιήσετε γράφοντες ἡμῖν περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης ὑμῶν...

31 ῾Ο δὲ Τρύφων ἐπορεύετο δόλῳ μετὰ ᾿Αντιόχου τοῦ βασιλέως τοῦ νεωτέρου καὶ ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτὸν 32 καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἀντ᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ περιέθετο διάδημα τῆς ᾿Ασίας καὶ ἐποίησε πληγὴν μεγάλην ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 33 καὶ ᾠκοδόμησε Σίμων τὰ ὀχυρώματα τῆς ᾿Ιουδαίας, καὶ περιετείχισε πύργοις ὑψηλοῖς καὶ τείχεσι μεγάλοις καὶ πύλαις καὶ μοχλοῖς καὶ ἔθετο βρώματα ἐν τοῖς ὀχυρώμασι. 34 καὶ ἐπέλεξε Σίμων ἄνδρας καὶ ἀπέστειλε πρὸς Δημήτριον τὸν βασιλέα τοῦ ποιῆσαι ἄφεσιν τῇ χώρᾳ, ὅτι πᾶσαι αἱ πράξεις Τρύφωνος ἦσαν ἁρπαγαί. 35 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτῷ Δημήτριος ὁ βασιλεὺς κατὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους καὶ ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ καὶ ἔγραψεν αὐτῷ ἐπιστολὴν
41 ἔτους ἑβδομηκοστοῦ καὶ ἑκατοστοῦ ᾔρθη ὁ ζυγὸς τῶν ἐθνῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Ισραήλ, 42 καὶ ἤρξατο ὁ λαὸς ᾿Ισραὴλ γράφειν ἐν ταῖς συγγραφαῖς καὶ συναλλάγμασιν ἔτους πρώτου ἐπὶ Σίμωνος ἀρχιερέως μεγάλου καὶ στρατηγοῦ καὶ ἡγουμένου ᾿Ιουδαίων.

16 Καὶ ἠκούσθη ἐν Ρώμῃ, ὅτι ἀπέθανεν ᾿Ιωνάθαν, καὶ ἕως Σπάρτης, καὶ ἐλυπήθησαν σφόδρα. 17 ὡς δὲ ἤκουσαν, ὅτι Σίμων ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ γέγονεν ἀντ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ ἐπικρατεῖ τῆς χώρας καὶ τῶν πόλεων τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ, 18 ἔγραψαν πρὸς αὐτὸν δέλτοις χαλκαῖς τοῦ ἀνανεώσασθαι πρὸς αὐτὸν φιλίαν καὶ τὴν συμμαχίαν, ἣν ἔστησαν πρὸς ᾿Ιούδαν καὶ ᾿Ιωνάθαν τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ. 19 καὶ ἀνεγνώσθησαν ἐνώπιον τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἐν ῾Ιερουσαλήμ. 20 καὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἀντίγραφον τῶν ἐπιστολῶν, ὧν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ Σπαρτιάται· «Σπαρτιατῶν ἄρχοντες καὶ ἡ πόλις Σίμωνι ἱερεῖ μεγάλῳ καὶ τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις καὶ τοῖς ἱερεῦσι καὶ τῷ λοιπῷ δήμῳ τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων ἀδελφοῖς χαίρειν.

15 Καὶ ἦλθε Νουμήνιος καὶ οἱ παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἐκ Ρώμης ἔχοντες ἐπιστολὰς τοῖς βασιλεῦσι καὶ ταῖς χώραις, ἐν αἷς ἐγέγραπτο τάδε· 16 «Λεύκιος ὕπατος Ρωμαίων Πτολεμαίῳ βασιλεῖ χαίρειν. 17 οἱ πρεσβευταὶ τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων ἦλθον πρὸς ἡμᾶς, φίλοι ἡμῶν καὶ σύμμαχοι, ἀνανεούμενοι τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς φιλίαν καὶ συμμαχίαν, ἀπεσταλμένοι ἀπὸ Σίμωνος τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τοῦ δήμου τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων· 18 ἤνεγκαν δὲ ἀσπίδα χρυσῆν ἀπὸ μνῶν χιλίων. 19 ἤρεσεν οὖν ἡμῖν γράψαι τοῖς βασιλεῦσι καὶ ταῖς χώραις ὅπως μὴ ἐκζητήσωσιν αὐτοῖς κακὰ καὶ μὴ πολεμήσωσιν αὐτοὺς καὶ τὰς πόλεις αὐτῶν καὶ τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν καὶ ἵνα μὴ συμμαχήσωσι τοῖς πολεμοῦσιν αὐτούς. 20 ἔδοξε δὲ ἡμῖν δέξασθαι τὴν ἀσπίδα παρ᾿ αὐτῶν. 21 εἴ τινες οὖν λοιμοὶ διαπεφεύγασιν ἐκ τῆς χώρας αὐτῶν πρὸς ἡμᾶς, παράδοτε αὐτοὺς Σίμωνι τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ, ὅπως ἐκδικήσῃ ἐν αὐτοῖς κατὰ τὸν νόμον αὐτῶν». —22 Καὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ἔγραψε Δημητρίῳ τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ ᾿Αττάλῳ, ᾿Αριαράθῃ καὶ ᾿Αρσάκῃ 23 καὶ εἰς πάσας τὰς χώρας καὶ Σαμψάμῃ καὶ Σπαρτιάταις καὶ εἰς Δῆλον καὶ Μύνδον καὶ Σικυῶνα καὶ εἰς τὴν Καρίαν καὶ εἰς Σάμον καὶ εἰς τὴν Παμφυλίαν καὶ εἰς τὴν Λυκίαν καὶ εἰς ῾Αλικαρνασσὸν καὶ εἰς Ρόδον καὶ εἰς Φασηλίδα καὶ εἰς Κῶ καὶ εἰς Σίδην καὶ εἰς ῎Αραδον καὶ εἰς Γόρτυναν καὶ Κνίδον καὶ Κύπρον καὶ Κυρήνην. 24 τὸ δὲ ἀντίγραφον αὐτῶν ἔγραψαν Σίμωνι τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ.

Tuesday, July 15, 2008

to be mentioned

1. The Apology of Aristides
2. A Plea for the Christians by Athenagoras the Athenian
3. Justin Martyr
4. Tatian. Address to the Greeks
5. Hermias the Philosopher
6. Theophilus of Antioch
7. Hippolytus of Rome. The Refutation of all Heresies
8. Clement of Alexandria
9. Gregory Thaumaturgus
10. Origen
11. Eusebios of Caesarea. Praeparatio and Historia
12. Theodoret of Cyrus
13. Gregory of Nyssa


ascetics, desert Fathers


14. Patriarch Photius... and the orthodox authors until the Fall of Constantinople


Annex -
the Bulgarian orthodox authors: 9th-19th cent.


I. Books

1. Sources
a. Originals
Saint Basil. Aux jeunes gens. Texte etabli et traduit par F. Boulenger. "Les belles lettres", 1965.
b. Translations
Василий Велики. Шестоднев и други беседи. Превод Росен Тенев. "Народна култура", 1999.
Беседа 22. К юношамъ о том, как пользоваться языческими сочиненiями. В: Творения Василiя Великаго. Ч.ІV. Москва, 1993 (1846).
Григорий Богослов. Слово 5. Второе обличительное на царя Иулиана. В: Григорий Богослов. Собрание творений. Т. І. "Харвест"-"Аст", 2000.
Йоан Златоуст. Към враждуващите против тези, които привличат към монашески живот. В: Св. Иоан Златоуст. Творения. Славянобългарски манастир "Св. Вмчк Георги Зограф", Света гора, Атон. 2007

2. Secondary

II. Sites

1. Sources
a. Originals
Basilii Magni Sermo de legendis libris gentilium, sive Ad adolescentes. Quomodo possint ex gentilium libris fructum capere. PG 31, 564-590
Clementis Alexandrini Philosophorum apud Graecos successio. PG 8, 758-768
Gregorii Nazianzeni Contra Julianum imperatorem II. PG 35, 663-719
Iohannis Chrysostomi Adversus Oppugnatores Eorum Qui Monasticam Vita Inducunt. PG 47, 319-386

b. Translations
- St Basil
- Clement of Alexandria
- St Gregory

2. Secondary

Gregory Nazianzen, Invective II Against Julian

Contra Julianum imperatorem II (PG 35, 663-719)

Pagan Historians; Mythology and Oracles

5. What will those gentlemen say of these events-they who are wise, as this world goes, and make a fine show of their own cause, smoothing down their flowing beard and trailing before our eyes that elegant philosophic mantle! Reply to me for thyself, thou writer of long discourses, that dost compose incredible stories and gapest up at the skies, telling lies about things celestial, and weaving out of the movements of the stars, people's nativities and predictions of the future! Tell me of those stars of thine, the Ariadne's Crown, the Berenice's Hair, the lascivious Swan, the violent Bull! or, if thou pleasest, tell me of thine Ophiuchus, or of thy Capricorn, or of thy Lion, or all the rest that thou hast discovered for a bad end and made them into gods in constellations! Where dost thou find this cycle in thy science, where the Star that of old moved towards Bethlehem out of the East, that leader and introducer of thy own Wise Men! I, too, have something to tell from the heavens: that Star declared the presence of Christ: this Crown is that of the victory of Christ!

8... None of these things does he seem to have considered when he engaged without reflection in his schemes: and whilst his Romans were still convulsed and ill-disposed towards him on account of the persecution, to covet a stranger's empire and to be a Salmoneus, making thunder out of a drum, having his eyes fixed upon the Trajans and Hadrians of former times, (persons whose caution was no less admirable than their bravery,) he did not think of the Carus,8 and the Valerian who paid the penalty of their inconsiderate rashness ("not to insult misfortune," as the tragedian says) in the territories of Persians, and were destroyed in the middle of their success.

11. For a man, one of no little consideration amongst the Persians, following the example of. that Zopyrus employed by Cyrus in the case of Babylon, on the pretence that he had had some quarrel, or rather a very great one and for a very great cause, with his king, and, on that account very hostile to the Persian cause, and well disposed towards the Romans, thus addresses the emperor: "Sire, what means all this, why do you take such rotten measures in so important a matter?

13. Up to this point, such is the universal account; but thenceforward, one and the same story is not told by all, but different accounts are reported and made up by different people, both of those present at the battle, and those not present; for some say that he was hit by a dart from the Persians, when engaged in a disorderly skirmish, as he was running hither and thither in his consternation; and the same fate befell him as it did to Cyrus, son of Parysatis, who went up with the Ten Thousand against his brother Artaxerxes, and by fighting inconsiderately threw away the victory through his rashness. Others, however, tell some such story as this respecting his end: that he had gone up upon a lofty hill to take a view of his army and ascertain how much was left him for carrying on the war; and that when he saw the number considerable and superior to his expectation, he exclaimed, "What a dreadful thing if we shall bring back all these fellows to the land of the Eomans!" as though he begrudged them a safe return. Whereupon one of his officers, being indignant and not able to repress his rage, ran him through the bowels, without caring for his own life. Others tell that the deed was done by a barbarian jester, such as follow the camp, "for the purpose of driving away ill humour and for amusing the men when they are drinking." This tale about the jester is borrowed from Lampridius, who gives it as one of the many current respecting the death of Alexander Severus. The "Historia Augusta," a recent compilation, was then in everybody's hands. At any rate, he receives a wound truly seasonable (or mortal) and salutary for the whole world, and by a single cut from his slaughterer he pays the penalty for the many entrails of victims to which he had trusted (to his own destruction); but what surprises me, is how the vain man that fancied he learnt the future from that means, knew nothing of the wound about to be inflicted on his own entrails! The concluding reflection is for once very appropriate: the liver of the victim was the approved means for reading the Future, and it was precisely in that organ that the arch-diviner received the fatal thrust.

15... So they agreed to these terms, so disgraceful, and so unworthy of the hand of Romans, to sum up the whole in one word; of the blame of which convention if anyone acquits the late and charges the present emperor, he is, in my opinion, but an ignorant critic of what has happened, for the crop is not due to the reaper, but to its sower, nor the conflagration to him that is unable to extinguish it, but to the incendiary. And the remark of Herodotus about the tyranny at Samos may be appropriately quoted, "that Histiaeus stitched the shoe, but Aristagoras put it on," meaning him that had received the succession from the man who had first gotten it.

20. What shall I say of his revisals and alterations of sentences, frequently changed and upset at midnight, like the tides? For my fine fellow thought proper to play the judge, making everything his own out of vanity. But perhaps by blaming him for very trifling things I shall be thought to disparage very important matters through others inconsiderable; nevertheless, it must be owned that such conduct is not deserving of the Elysian Fields, nor of the glory of a Rhadamanthus in the next world, a lot which those of the same fraternity and set claim for him. One thing in his conduct I have to admire. Many of his former companions and acquaintances, principally from the schools in Asia, he summoned to him with all haste, as though about to do wonderful things for them, as he excited them to hope when they remembered his fine promises. |103 But when they were arrived, 'twas the saying, "the deceits of counters and the illusions of dreams," for some he befooled in one way, some in another, for there were whom he entertained at table, and drank to, with much bawling out of "My friend," and after all sent them about their business disappointed, not knowing whom to blame the most-him for the deception, or themselves for their credulity.

31... No more shall gluttonous and sinful demons have dominion; no more shall the creature be dishonoured under pretence of honour, being worshipped in the place of God! Throw down thy Triptolemuses, and thy Eleusis, and thy foolish Dragons: shame thyself of the books of thine oracular Orpheus: accept the gift of the season that covers thy nakedness; and if these things be but fables and fictions, I will reveal to thee the mysteries of Night!

32. No more does the Oak speak; no more does the Cauldron give oracles; no more is the Pythia filled with I know what, save lies and nonsense. Again the Castalian Fount has been silenced and is silent, and becomes no |longer an oracular stream, but an object of ridicule: again a voiceless statue is Apollo: again is Daphne a shrub bewailed in fable: again is thy Bacchus a catamite, with a train of drunkards tied to his tail, as well as thy grand mystery, the Phallus; and a god abandoning himself to the beautiful Prosymnus: again Semele is struck with lightning: again Vulcan is lame (though quick to catch an adulterer), and a god grimed with soot, although a famous artificer, and the Thersites of Olympus: again Mars is a prisoner for adultery, with all his terrors, and frights, and tumults, and gets wounded through his audacity: again Venus is one, formerly a harlot, to her shame, and the procuress of shameful copulations: again Minerva is a maid, and yet brings forth a dragon: again Hercules is mad, or rather has ceased to be mad: again out of lasciviousness and impurity, Jove, teacher, and sovereign of the gods, turns himself into all sorts of things; and though able to draw up all the gods together with all living things, is himself drawn down by none: again Jupiter's tomb is shown in Crete. If I see thy god of gain, thy god of speech, thy president of games, I close my eyes and run past thy god out of shame for the exhibition: thou mayest, for ought I care, adore the tension of his-speech (shall I call it), and his money-bag. One thing alone of them all is respectable-namely, the honours paid amongst the Egyptians to the Nile by the catamite, also those to Isis, and the gods of Mendes and the Apis bulls, and the other things thou dost sculpture or paint, composite and monstrous creatures, thy ludicrous Pan, thy Priapus, thy Hermaphroditus; and the gods who castrate themselves, or tear themselves to pieces. These subjects, however, I will leave to the stage, and to those |113 who decorate them with pomps and ceremonies, and I will conclude my discourse with an exhortation.

38. I pass over the inspired, and our own denouncements, and the punishments that, according to us, are in store in the world to come: turn, pray, to thine own stories that are accepted, not by the poets only, but also by people who were philosophers; I mean thy Pyriphlegethons, Cocyti, and Acherons, wherewith they punish wickedness, Tantalus, Tityos, Ixion. Julian, your king of this fraternity, shall be reckoned amongst these-nay, at the head of them all, according to my calculation and definition-though he be not tormented with thirst whilst up to his chin in a lake; nor fearing (as Tragedy pleases) the rock overhanging his head, continually pushed away, continually rolling back; nor revolving along with the whizzing wheel; nor torn by vultures in his liver, never coming to an end, always renewed-whether all this be truth, or fable foreshowing the truth |in fictions-but we shall see with what, and what sort of torture he will be punished, and how much more severely than all the rest-if, indeed, punishments and retributions be adjudged according to the measure of offences.

39. Here is "a keepsake for thee in return for a kick,"28 thou best and wisest of men! (to address thee in thy own words); this do we offer thee, we that were excluded from the use of words, according to thy mighty and wonderful legislation; thou seest that we were not destined to be silenced for ever, or be condemned to speechlessness by thy decrees, but to utter a free voice demonstrative of thy folly. For neither is there any means of holding-in the cataracts of Nile, which tumble down from Ethiopia upon Egypt, nor yet the solar beam, even though it may be veiled for a little space by the snowfall, nor to tie the tongue of Christians from exposing to ridicule thy religion. These words Basil and Gregory send thee, "those opponents and counterworkers of thy scheme," as thou wast wont to call them and persuade others to do the same-doing us honour by what thou didst threaten us with, and moving us all the more to piety-persons who being well known for their life, discourse, and mutual affection, and whom thou wast acquainted with ever since our common residence in Greece, thou didst treat with the honour the Cyclops paid Ulysses; thou didst keep us in reserve as the last victims for the persecution, and didst probably design as a thankoffering for victory to thy own demons (a great and splendid one, in truth!) in case we should get thee back returning triumphant from Persia; or else them didst hope, in thy infatuation, to drag us along with thee into the same abyss as thyself!

Thursday, July 10, 2008

Clement of Alexandria, the Stromata

Philosophorum apud Graecos successio (PG 8, 758-768)

XIV. Succession of Philosophers in Greece

The Greeks say, that after Orpheus and Linus, and the most ancient of the poets that appeared among them, the seven, called wise, were the first that were admired for their wisdom. Of whom four were of Asia—Thales of Miletus, and Bias of Priene, Pittacus of Mitylene, and Cleobulus of Lindos; and two of Europe, Solon the Athenian, and Chilon the Lacedæmonian; and the seventh, some say, was Periander of Corinth; others, Anacharsis the Scythian; others, Epimenides the Cretan, whom Paul knew as a Greek prophet, whom he mentions in the Epistle to Titus, where he speaks thus: “One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. And this witness is true.” You see how even to the prophets of the Greeks he attributes something of the truth, and is not ashamed, when discoursing for the edification of some and the shaming of others, to make use of Greek poems. Accordingly to the Corinthians (for this is not the only instance), while discoursing on the resurrection of the dead, he makes use of a tragic Iambic line, when he said, “What advantageth it me if the dead are not raised? Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. Be not deceived; evil communications corrupt good manners.” Others have enumerated Acusilaus the Argive among the seven wise men; and others, Pherecydes of Syros. And Plato substitutes Myso the Chenian for Periander, whom he deemed unworthy of wisdom, on account of his having reigned as a tyrant. That the wise men among the Greeks flourished after the age of Moses, will, a little after, be shown. But the style of philosophy among them, as Hebraic and enigmatical, is now to be considered. They adopted brevity, as suited for exhortation, and most useful. Even Plato says, that of old this mode was purposely in vogue among all the Greeks, especially the Lacedæmonians and Cretans, who enjoyed the best laws.

The expression, “Know thyself,” some supposed to be Chilon’s. But Chamæleon, in his book About the Gods, ascribes it to Thales; Aristotle to the Pythian. It may be an injunction to the pursuit of knowledge. For it is not possible to know the parts without the essence of the whole; and one must study the genesis of the universe, that thereby we may be able to learn the nature of man. Again, to Chilon the Lacedæmonian they attribute, “Let nothing be too much.” Strato, in his book Of Inventions, ascribes the apophthegm to Stratodemus of Tegea. Didymus assigns it to Solon; as also to Cleobulus the saying, “A middle course is best.” And the expression, “Come under a pledge, and mischief is at hand,” Cleomenes says, in his book Concerning Hesiod, was uttered before by Homer in the lines:

Wretched pledges, for the wretched, to be pledged
(Odyss., viii. 351)
The Aristotelians judge it to be Chilon’s; but Didymus says the advice was that of Thales. Then, next in order, the saying, “All men are bad,” or, “The most of men are bad” (for the same apophthegm is expressed in two ways), Sotades the Byzantian says that it was Bias’s. And the aphorism, “Practice conquers everything,” Μελέτη πάντα καθαιρεῖ. they will have it to be Periander’s; and likewise the advice, “Know the opportunity,” to have been a saying of Pittacus. Solon made laws for the Athenians, Pittacus for the Mitylenians. And at a late date, Pythagoras, the pupil of Pherecydes, first called himself a philosopher. Accordingly, after the fore-mentioned three men, there were three schools of philosophy, named after the places where they lived: the Italic from Pythagoras, the Ionic from Thales, the Eleatic from Xenophanes. Pythagoras was a Samian, the son of Mnesarchus, as Hippobotus says: according to Aristoxenus, in his life of Pythagoras and Aristarchus and Theopompus, he was a Tuscan; and according to Neanthes, a Syrian or a Tyrian. So that Pythagoras was, according to the most, of barbarian extraction. Thales, too, as Leander and Herodotus relate, was a Phœnician; as some suppose, a Milesian. He alone seems to have met the prophets of the Egyptians. But no one is described as his teacher, nor is any one mentioned as the teacher of Pherecydes of Syros, who had Pythagoras as his pupil. But the Italic philosophy, that of Pythagoras, grew old in Metapontum in Italy. Anaximander of Miletus, the son of Praxiades, succeeded Thales; and was himself succeeded by Anaximenes of Miletus, the son of Eurustratus; after whom came Anaxagoras of Clazomenæ, the son of Hegesibulus. He transferred his school from Ionia to Athens. He was succeeded by Archelaus, whose pupil Socrates was.
From these turned aside, the stone-mason; Talker about laws; the enchanter of the Greeks
says Timon in his Satirical Poems, on account of his quitting physics for ethics. Antisthenes, after being a pupil of Socrates, introduced the Cynic philosophy; and Plato withdrew to the Academy. Aristotle, after studying philosophy under Plato, withdrew to the Lyceum, and founded the Peripatetic sect. He was succeeded by Theophrastus, who was succeeded by Strato, and he by Lycon, then Critolaus, and then Diodorus. Speusippus was the successor of Plato; his successor was Xenocrates; and the successor of the latter, Polemo. And the disciples of Polemo were Crates and Crantor, in whom the old Academy founded by Plato ceased. Arcesilaus was the associate of Crantor; from whom, down to Hegesilaus, the Middle Academy flourished. Then Carneades succeeded Hegesilaus, and others came in succession. The disciple of Crates was Zeno of Citium, the founder of the Stoic sect. He was succeeded by Cleanthes; and the latter by Chrysippus, and others after him. Xenophanes of Colophon was the founder of the Eleatic school, who, Timæus says, lived in the time of Hiero, lord of Sicily, and Epicharmus the poet; and Apollodorus says that he was born in the fortieth Olympiad, and reached to the times of Darius and Cyrus. Parmenides, accordingly, was the disciple of Xenophanes, and Zeno of him; then came Leucippus, and then Democritus. Disciples of Democritus were Protagoras of Abdera, and Metrodorus of Chios, whose pupil was Diogenes of Smyrna; and his again Anaxarchus, and his Pyrrho, and his Nausiphanes. Some say that Epicurus was a scholar of his.

Such, in an epitome, is the succession of the philosophers among the Greeks. The periods of the originators of their philosophy are now to be specified successively, in order that, by comparison, we may show that the Hebrew philosophy was older by many generations.
It has been said of Xenophanes that he was the founder of the Eleatic philosophy. And Eudemus, in the Astrological Histories, says that Thales foretold the eclipse of the sun, which took place at the time that the Medians and the Lydians fought, in the reign of Cyaxares the father of Astyages over the Medes, and of Alyattus the son of Crœsus over the Lydians. Herodotus in his first book agrees with him. The date is about the fiftieth Olympiad. Pythagoras is ascertained to have lived in the days of Polycrates the tyrant, about the sixty-second Olympiad. Mnesiphilus is described as a follower of Solon, and was a contemporary of Themistocles. Solon therefore flourished about the forty-sixth Olympiad. For Heraclitus, the son of Bauso, persuaded Melancomas the tyrant to abdicate his sovereignty. He despised the invitation of king Darius to visit the Persians.

Wednesday, July 2, 2008

St John Chrysostom Vita monastica

Adversus Oppugnatores Eorum Qui Monasticam Vita Inducunt (PG 47, 319-386)

1. ...336-337;
Audi (apud Platonem) quid ad Socratem loquatur Crito: tuae sane sunt meae pecuniae, ut quidem reor, satis multae... intulit pecuniam ingentem Simmias Thebanus; paratus est Cebes quoque... sic ut nihil tibi in Thessalia desit.
Quid vero praeceptor eius Socrates? Quanto is Archelao fuit illustrior?

2. ...337
Quantum pecuniarum Alexandrum Diogeni daturum fuisse putas, si quidem ille voluisset accipere?
Sinopensis autem (Diogenes) alius philosophus tanto et his et allis innumeris regibus opulentior fuit, etsi pannis laceris vestitus... ut Alexander Philippi Macedo... ubi illum vidit... ad eum pergeret ac rogaret ullane re indigeret...

3. ...339
de Dionysio forte audisti Siciliae tyranno, itemque de Platone, Aristonis filio... ille in deliciis degebat.. hic autem in Academiae horto versabatur.. vilissimam imponens mensam illo omli vano splendore vacuus.

4. ...340
apud Athenienses Aristides, quem civitas sepelivit, Alcibiade, qui opibus, orationis vi... nobilitate ceterisque omnibus praestabat, tatnto clarior erat, quanto vili aliquo puerulo philosophus mirabilis.

5. ...340
apud Thebanus Epaminondas, in concionem vocatus, cum propterea eo se conferre non posset, quod vestem lavandam curaret, nec aliam haberet qua indueretur, omnibus tamen ducibus... praestantior erat.