Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Classical Studies in Bulgaria 1959-1979. The situation by 1979

I. Classicists and scholars, whose researches were related to Classics (who is who)
in memoriam
Todor GERASIMOV (1974)
Head of Section for Epigraphy and Numismatics at the Archeological Institute (since 1964).
retired (1968)
Co-author of Thracian Art (1973).
Makarij Portalski (1979)
retired (1976)
Co-author of Latin Grammar (1961)
Translation of Quintilian`s Institutio Oratoria (1982)

1. Professional profiles and main institutions classicists work in
a. Sofia University
(The main source for the CVs is Алманах на Софийския Университет "Климент Охридски" 1939-1988, А-Я. SU Press, 1988)
- Department of Classical philology
G. Mihailov – professor (1964).
(Or 1963 - Димитър Веселинов. Летописна книга на ФКНФ 1888-1965. SU Press, 2008)
Editor of Greek Inscriptions Discovered in Bulgaria (in Latin), t. III-IV. 590 p. + 329 pl. and 348 p. + 86 pl. (1961-1966). Author of The Thracians. 320 p. (1972).
Translations of Plato`s Dialogues (1979, selected).
Courses: Greek Syntax; Historical Grammar and History of Greek Language; Greek Epigraphy; History of Greek Culture.
Al. Nichev - professor (1963). D-r of the Moscow State University (1972).
Author of: The Tragic Guilt in Sophocles` Oedipus the King (in French). 108 p. (1962); Sofronij`s Translation of Aesop`s Fables. 122 p. (1963). Aleko Konstantinov. 326 p. (1964). The Riddle of the Tragic Catharsis in Aristotle (in French). 254 p. (1970).
Translations of: Plautus` Menaechmi and The Pot of Gold (1966), Miles Gloriosus (1978); Aeschylus, all plays (1967); Aristotle`s Poetics (1967); Lucian`s Dialogues (selected) (1971); Seneca`s Oedipus (1977); Euripides` Electra and Bacchae (1977); Aristophanes` The Assemblywomen and Ploutos (1978); Menander`s Dyskolos (1978); Terence`s The Brothers (1978)
Courses: History of Ancient Literature; Greek Literature; Modern Greek Grammar
K. Vlahov – associate professor (1967) and professor (1973).
Author of The Thracian Personal Names. 138 p. (1976). Articles on the Thracian language (650-700 p. in Bulgarian and German) (1963-1979)
Courses: Phonetics and Morphology of the Greek Language; Syntax of the Greek Language; Thracian Language
T. Sarafov - associate professor (1973).
Author of: The Literary Views of Apuleius. 48 p. (1966); The Thracian satres (sic!). 70 p. (1973); Transcription and Pronuntiation of Latin and Greek Personal Names in Bulgarian. 23 p. (1979). Articles on Thracian language and history (30 p. in Bulgarian and French) (1970-1978).
Translation of Aesop's Fables (1967).
Zorka POPOVA (b. 1921 in Razgrad). Graduated from the Sofia University, Classical philology (1944). Teacher in Latin language (1961).
Author of articles on the influence of Tibullus, Catullus, Horace and Propertius on the Latin epigraphic inscriptions (200-250 p.) (1967-1980)
Courses: Morphology of the Latin Language; Phonetics of the Latin Language; History of the Latin Language
Anna B. NIKOLOVA (b. 1939 in Sofia). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (1962). Assistant (1968). PhD (1975) with Chronology of Seneca`s De Ira and De Clementia.
Bogdan BOGDANOV (b. 1940 in Sofia). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (1963). Assistant (1969). PhD (1976) with The Euripides` Two-parts Tragedies and the Question of the Description of the World-view Problematics of the Attic Tragedy.
Author of: From Homer to Euripides. Essays on Greek Literature. 192 p. (1971); Homer`s Epic. 127 p. (1976); Hellenistic Literature. 199 p. (1979).
Translations of: Theophrastus` Characters (1968); Plutarch`s Lives (1969, selected); Greek Novels (1975, selected); Plato`s Dialogues (1979, selected)
Courses: Introduction in the Classical philology (since 1979)
N. GEORGIEVA (b. 1947 in Elin Pelin, near Sofia). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (1971). Assistant (1979).
8 teachers (5 men 3 women): 4 Greek scholars (3 literature-culture, 1 language), 4 Latin (2 literature and culture, 2 language)
- other Departments and Faculties
V. Velkov – associate professor (1961) and professor (1970) at the Department of Old and Medieval History. Head of Section for Epigraphy and Numismatics at the Archeological Institute (1972-1989).
Author of: Slavery in Thrace and Moesia in Antiquity. 154 p. (1967); Cities and Thrace and Dacia in Late Antiquity (in English). 308 p. (1977). Roman Cities in Bulgaria (in English). 300 p. (1979);
Co-author of Thracians in Greco-Roman Egypt (in French). 118 p. (1977)
Courses: History of Ancient World (since 1961);
R. Radev – associate professor (1969) and professor (1977) at the Department of Philosophy. D-r of the Philosophical Sciences (1976).
Author of: Materialistic Principles in Aristotle`s Philosophy of Knowledge. 156 p. (1961). Through the History of Arab Philosophy. 164 p. (1966). Hellenistic Philosophy. 312 p. (1973). Epicurus. Life and Work. 168 p. (1976).
Courses: History of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy
Alexander FOL (b. 1933 in Sofia). Graduated from the Sofia University, History (1957). Assistant (1963). PhD (1966) with The Thracians in Italy and in the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire. Associate professor (1972) and professor (1974) at the Department of Old and Medieval History.
Author of: Political History of Thracians until the end of V c. BC. 216 p. (1972)
Co-author of: Epaminondas. 111 p. (1967); Thracian Military Art. 127 p. (1969). Thracians in Greco-Roman Egypt (in French). 118 p. (1977); Thrace and the Thracians (in English). 160 p. (1977).
Courses: History of Ancient Greece (from 1972); Thracian Sources (from 1972); Thracology (since 1979)
Margarita TACHEVA (b. 1936 in Shumen). PhD (1969) with The Migrants of Asia Minor Syria and Egypt in the Economic and Cultural Life of Moesia Inferior and Thrace I-III c. Chief Assistant (1974). Associate professor (1976) at the Department of Old and Medieval History.
Author of Ancient Thrace and the South-East of Europe (in Russian). 88 p. (1976).
Courses: History of Ancient World (1975-1979); Thracology (1979)
Krasimir BANEV (b. 1940). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (196…). Assistant in Methods of Teaching Classical Language (Department of Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages) (around 1970).
Dimitar POPOV (b. 1950). Graduated from the Sofia University, history (1973). PhD (1977) with Political and Religious Aspects of the King`s Institution by the Thracians. Assistant (1978) at the Department of Old and Medieval History.
Petar DELEV (b. 1951 in Sofia). Graduated from the Sofia University, history (1977). Assistant (1979) at the Department of Old and Medieval History.
7 teachers (6 men 1 woman): 4 historians, 1 archeologist-epigraphist, 1 philologist-methodologist, 1 philosopher

b. outside the University
- other universities (Tarnovo, Plovdiv, Medical academy in Sofia… no inf. yet)
* Theological Academy
Al. Milev - senior teacher in classical languages at the University (1964). Retired (1969). Professor (1970-1980).
Co-author of Latin Grammar (1961)
Translations of: Aristophanes` Clouds (1962), Homer`s Iliad (in cooperation) (1969); The Greek Lives of St Kliment Ohridski (1961); Plato`s Republic (1974
- Academy of Sciences
* Archeological Institute
Teofil IVANOV (b…). Graduated from Sofia University, classical philology. Head of Section for Ancient Archeology (1965-1982).
* Institute for Bulgarian History
(Edited Greek Sources for Bulgarian History (v. I-VI) until 1965)
G. TSANKOVA (b…) - junior researcher (senior since…)
S. LISHEV (b…) - junior researcher…(senior since…)
* Institute for Balkan Studies
Vasilka Tapkova-Zaimova - researcher at section Byzantium and the Balkan Peoples (since 1964)
* Thracology Institute
- elsewhere in academic and cultural institutions
* museums
Iv. Venedikov - senior researcher at the Archeological Institute (since 1962). Senior researcher (1973-1978) at the Thracology institute. Director of the section of Ancient archeology at the National Historical Museum (1973-1986).
Co-author of Thracian Art (1973).
6 classicists (4 men 2 woman): 2 archeologists, 2 philologists-editors, 1 philologist-historian, 1 Greek and Latin teacher and translator
- gymnasiums (the NGDEK)
Dimitar BOJADZHIEV (b. 1949). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (1973). Teacher of Latin language. PhD (1979)
Ivan GENOV (b. 1956). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (1979). Teacher of Greek language (since 1979)
Dorotei GETOV (b. 195…). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (197…). Teacher of Greek language (since 1978)
Maria KOSTOVA (b. 1948). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (1971). Teacher of Latin language (1978-1982)
Judith PHILIPOVA (b. 195…). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (197…). Teacher of Latin language since 1978
Ognyan RADEV (b. 1955 in Varna). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (1979). Teacher of Greek language and Ancient Culture (since 1979)
Rumen STEFANOV (b. 195…). Graduated from the Sofia University, classical philology (197…). Teacher of Greek language (since 1978)
7 teachers (5 men 2 women); 3 Greek language, 1 Greek language and culture, 3 Latin language
- no position in educational (academic, etc.) institution (or no information about)
G. Batakliev - Translations of: Apuleius` The Golden Ass (1964, in cooperation); Homer`s Odyssey (1971); Ovid's Metamorphoses (1974);
P. Radev - Translation of Apuleius` The Golden Ass (1964, in cooperation)
M. Markov - Translations of: Sallust`s Conspiracy of Catiline and Jugurthine War; Livy's History of Rome, I (1978); Aristotle`s On the Soul (1979).
Borislav GEORGIEV - Translation of Ancient Lyric (1970, selected)
Nikolina BAKARDZIEVA - Translation of Pliny`s the Younger Letters (1979)
Milko MIRCHEV - Translation of Thucydides` History of the Peloponnesian War (1979).
6 classicists (mostly known as translators) (5 men 1 woman): 2 from Greek, 3 from Latin, 1 both;
- left educational (academic, cultural) institution (fired, retired)
Y. Bratkov, retired (1967).
Co-author of Latin Grammar (1961)
B. Gerov, retired (1969).
Investigations on West-Thracian Lands in Roman Times. Parts I-IV. 540 p. (1960-1969)
D. P. Dimitrov, retired (1971).
Bulgaria – Land of Ancient Civilizations (in English) (57 p., 1961)
V. Beshevliev, retired (1972).
Head of Section for Epigraphy and Numismatics at the Archeological Institute (until 1964). Since 1964 senior researcher at the Institute for Balkan Studies.
Proto-Bulgarian Inscriptions (in German, 382 p., 1963; in Bulgarian, 1979). Late Greek and Late Latin Inscriptions from Bulgaria (in German, 235 p., 1964)
Vl. Georgiev, retired (1974).
Bulgarian Etymology and Onomastics (180 p., 1960). The Vocal System in the Development of the Slavic Languages (128 p., 1964)
Specialized courses: Contemporary Linguistics (1965-1974)
Hr. Danov, retired (1975)
Ancient Thrace (1968), 471 p. The Thracians (1979), 183 p.
R. Gandeva, retired (1978)
Senior teacher (1962). Associate professor (1969) and professor (1974).
Author of articles on Horace (200-250 p. in Bulgarian, German and Latin) (1963-1978).
Co-author of Latin Grammar (1961)
Courses: Morphology of Latin Language; Latin Syntax; History of Roman Literature
M. Vojnov (?) – at least until the end of 50s in the Institute for Bulgarian History
8 classicists (7 men 1 woman): 1 historian, 1 archeologist, I linguist, 2 philologists-epigraphists, 1 philologist-methodologist, 1 Latin literature teacher, 1 editor

2. Overview – 42 classicists (active and retired)
a. age
- old (over 60) - 14
- middle-aged (over 35) – 20 (?)
- young (under 35) - 8
b. gender, family, native region, place (city) they are based – 32 men, 10 women
Almost all work at Sofia.
c. professional field/educational degree/position
- philology (literature/culture, language/linguistic studies, edition of sources) – 12 (7 lit., 5 language)
- history and archeology, epigraphy - 10
- language teaching and translation – 17
- Greek, Latin studies (where clear distinction is possible) – 22 (11 Greek, 12 Latin)
- in educational institutions – 23 (7 secondary, 16 higher)
- outside educational/academic/cultural institution – 13
d. academic awards
e. administrative positions in academic institutions
Hr. Danov - Head of the Department of Ancient and Medieval History (1960-1975)
Al. Nichev - Head of the Department of Classical philology (1970-1978); Dean of the Faculty of Western Philologies (1970-1972)
V. Velkov – Head of the Department of Ancient and Medieval History (from 1979).
Al. Fol – Director of the Thracology Institute at the Academy (from 1972); Head of the Department of Thracology at the University (from 1979);
f. social and political activities and consequences of them
- social activities. Awards
- works, probably politically motivated (related to the political situation)
Hr. Danov – Critical Review of the Bourgeois Historiography on Antiquity in Bulgaria until September 9, 1944. 66 p. (1964). R. Radev – Criticism of Neothomism. 424 p. (1970); Neothomism – the “Modern” Philosophy of Catholicism. 67 p. (1976)
- political activities
* members of the Communist party
R. Radev (1962), Al. Fol (1966)
* high party and state positions (government, state administration, cultural institutions)
Al. Fol – Deputy President of the Committee of Culture (1974-1977);
Minister of People`s Education (1979-1986)
* state awards, titles
Vl. Georgiev – Hero of Socialist Labour (1969), Dimitrov Prize (1969), People`s Scientist (1971)
B. Gerov – Red Flag of Labour (1963), 25 Years People`s Power (1969)
Y. Bratkov – Active Fighter against Fascism and Capitalism (1966); Cyril and Methodius I degree (1971); People`s Republic of Bulgaria I degree (1972); Hero of Socialist Labour (1978)
Hr. Danov – Honoured Scientist (1978)
M. Portalski – Cyril and Methodius I degree (1976)
- penalties

II. Fields and directions of study

1. Production
a. researches (fields)
- epigraphy and source editing (Greek, Latin, Proto-Bulgarian, Byzantine) – Mihailov, Gerov, Beshevliev, Vojnov, Tapkova-Zaimova
- contemporary Bulgaria`s lands in antiquity (monuments of Roman and Greek presence, other peoples except Thracians) – Danov, Mihailov, Gerov, Beshevliev, Velkov, Tacheva, Dimitrov
- thracology (material culture, art, written sources, political history, religious cult, language) – Georgiev, Danov, Mihailov, Gerasimov, Venedikov, Velkov, Vlahov, Fol, Popov
- literature, theory (Greek tragedy, Aristotle`s views on literature) – Nichev, Bogdanov
- literature, history (history of Greek and Latin literature, Greek and Roman poetry) – Gandeva, Sarafov, Popova, Bogdanov, Nikolova
- philosophy (Greek materialism, Aristotle`s tradition in Middle Ages, Hellenistic philosophy) – R. Radev
- cultural studies (Greek, Thracian, mythology) – Mihailov, Velkov, Fol, Bogdanov, Popov
b. translations
- Greek authors (Homer, Aeschylus, selected works by Euripides and Aristophanes, selected lyric, Thucydides, Aristotle (Poetics, on the Soul), Plato (early dialogues), selected works by Plutarch and Lucian) novels – Milev, Batakliev, Nichev, B. Georgiev, Mirchev, Markov, Mihailov, Bogdanov
- Roman authors (selected drama, Sallust, Livy (book I), selected lyric, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, Apuleius) – Nichev, Batakliev, Bakardzhieva, Markov, Radev

2. Teaching
a. courses
b. manuals, handbooks

3. General tendencies

III. The classical studies and classical education in general

1. Institutions
a. secondary education
- The NGDEK (15)
The National Gymnasium for Ancient Languages and Cultures was opened in the autumn of 1977. First year 99 pupils were enrolled (32 boys, 67 girls) (Иван Еленков. Неосъщественият "Национален научно-методически център за подготовка усъвършенстване на кадри по древни езици и култури" в контекста на неосъществените проекти на Людмила Живкова. Paper, read on the conference in memory of prof. Dimitar Bojadzhiev, SU, 13-14 of November, 2009). From then every year about 80 pupils were enrolled with, if possible, an equal number of boys and girls.
In the program, which remains almost unchanged until today, were included as classical languages Latin, Greek and Old Bulgarian. The first year the pupils learned only Latin (4 hours for week); the second Greek was added (4 hours); the third they had Old Bulgarian too (2 hours). All these languages were studied as compulsory disciplines.
The discipline of History was taught mainly by university teachers (In the first years Ancient History (1st year, Greece, Rome, Thrace) was taught by D. Popov (then young assistant, now professor at the Sofia University) and K. Yordanov (researcher at the Thracology institute, now professor at the NBU); Medieval History, with special stress to Byzantine and Bulgarian relationships (2 year) – by G. Bakalov and P. Angelov, now both professors at the Sofia University. Modern Western History (3 year) – by R. Donkov and R. Guenov, now professors at the Sofia University too). Ancient Classical Culture and Medieval Bulgarian Culture were taught as separated disciplines. There were also courses in Ancient (including the ancient East), Medieval and Renaissance art.
At the fourth year began the Lyceum-degree (It was called so in the following years. According to the actual regulations Gymnasium education is completed at he end of the 3d year. At the following 2 years the pupils acquire the specialised Lyceum education (see http://www.ngdek.com/training.html). At this degree disciplines as Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology were no more studied. At their place began the specialized education, where at the beginning the pupils could choose between two “profiles” - Old Bulgarian Philology (Старобългаристика) and Sanskrit language.
b. higher education (Sofia University)
The situation in the Department of Classical philology and in other Departments and Faculties –exams, curricula, number of enrolled and graduated students.
c. elsewhere
d. theological schools
- secondary
- higher (Sofia University)

2. Contacts between scholars and publishing
a. internal
- congresses, conferences etc.
- associations
- periodicals
b. external
- membership in foreign academic organizations. Awards
G. Mihailov – Corresponding Member of: British Academy of Sciences (1972); French Academie des Inscriptions at Belles-Lettres (1979); Member and President of the International Association for Greek and Latin Epigraphy (since its founding, 1972)
K. Vlahov – Member of the Committee for Classic Studies in the Socialist Countries “Eirene”.
V. Velkov - Member of: Austrian Archeological Institute (1972); German Archeological Institute (1972)
- meetings with academicians from abroad
* congresses, conferences etc.
* lectures (courses) of foreign scholars in Bulgaria
* lectures (courses) of Bulgarian scholars abroad
G. Mihailov – Fellow of the Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton (1977/1978)
Hr. Danov – Courses and lectures at Paris (Sorbonne) and Oxford (1974)
- publishing in other languages
* languages
* publishing houses, periodicals

3. Ideology of the classical studies
a. debates about Classics (in academic circles, media, the view of state and Party elite)
b. histories of classical studies (in Bulgaria and generally)
- general surveys, bibliographies etc.
B. Gerov – The Classical philology in Bulgaria (in German). 5 p. (1960)
G. Mihailov – The Epigraphy in Bulgaria (in French). 6 p. (1971)
- memoirs

IV. Education and studies in general

1. Institutions for education and research
Financing of science: 0.5% of GNP (1960), 1.2% (1965), 2,44 (1974)

a. primary and secondary education
3060 basic schools (I-VII class); 144 gymnasiums (VIII-XI class), 172 full secondary schools (I-XI class); 219 technicums; - 158 004 pupils and 8021 teachers in the high degree (VIII-XI class), 90 778 pupils and 4999 teachers in the technicums (1960/1961)
2812 basic schools; 137 gymnasiums, 127 full secondary schools; 246 technicums, 184 СПТУ; 9 art schools - 102 795 pupils and 6242 teachers in the high degree; 151 017 pupils and 8793 teachers in the technicums, 68 163 pupils and 4836 teachers in СПТУ; 2174 pupils and 434 teachers in the art schools (1969/1970)
- general
At the beginning of the 60s appear the “secondary professional-technical schools” (средни професионално-технически училища, СПТУ). Since 1964 mathematical gymnasiums are opened and since 1968 – sport schools.
The secondary education is obligatory for all (Constitution of 1971, art…). The obligatory basic education (and the pre-school education as well) is organized and secured by the regional and municipal people`s councils. They can select and appoint the teachers in the kindergartens and basic schools. They are responsible for the material conditions in these schools (Regulations for the tasks and functions of the regional and municipal people`s councils, 1969).
Since the beginning of the 70-ties the term of education in the high degree of the secondary polytechnic schools and the technicums becomes 3 years.
Since 1979 – “unified secondary polytechnic school”, USPS (единно средно политехтичесщо училище, ЕСПУ) with two degrees (10+2 years). In the second degree is given a certain professional preparation and the pupils participate in the production (manufacture) system.
- humanities

b. higher education
22 schools of higher education, 61 444 students, 100 000 university graduates (1961/1962).
26 schools of higher education (end of the 60s), 84 467 students (1965/1966) – 103 per 10 000. 70% - in technical, economic and agricultural schools. 160 000 university graduates. 2 000 subjects taught.
25 schools of higher education, 1 Academy for Social Sciences and Civil Administration, 6 High Military Schools, 1 Theological Academy (1975/1976).
Unified Centre for Mathematics and Mechanics (since 1971, created with an order of the Council of Ministers from December 30, 1970). The scholars of the Academy begin to read lectures at the universities and to be elected for members of University Departments (since 1972). Common Plans for Scientific Research of SU and the Academy (since 1973). The procedures of conferring academic and scholarly titles and degrees are performed by the specialized scientific councils at the unified centers (since 1972).
- Sofia University
Nearly 16 000 students in all educational forms (regular, corresponding) (1965), 15 000 (1971-1975), 11 000 (1979)
7 020 Bulgarian and 191 foreign students graduated (1972-1975).
836 regular staff (120 professors, 150 associate professors, 405 assistants, 161 lecturers). 269 part-time staff (27 professors, 15 associate professors). 261 PhD, 41 Doctor of Sciences. Average age – 43.5 years. 758 men, 347 women (mid-70s).
Every year (by the end of the 60s) the University academic staff publishes more than 1000 works (20% abroad).
In the period 1972-1975 387 university manuals and handbooks are published.

* general
Evening education (since 1961).
Scientific and Research Sector (Научно-изследователски сектор, НИС) – a form of “connection of the scientific work with economic problems and social practice” (since the beginning of the 60s; stopped after 1971/72, restored 1978).
The Faculty of Biology, Geology and Geography is divided into Faculty of Biology (specialties biology (8 Departments) and biochemistry with microbiology (3 Departments)) and Faculty of Geology and Geography (1962-1963). In 1963 the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics is separated into three new faculties – Mathematics (with 7 Departments until 1969; later – Mathematics and Mechanics), Physics (8 Departments), Chemistry (7 Departments). Department of Library Studies, Bibliography and Scientific Information (1968).
During the 60s 30% of the staff in the Faculty of Physics obtained their PhD (Candidate) degrees in USSR, 25% made long-period postdoctoral studies there.
Special meeting of the Academic Council of SU (July 1, 1966). Criteria for promotion (a “Candidate” and “Doctor of Sciences” degree is necessary for obtaining the titles of “associate professor” and “professor”).
Student scientific circles, connected with the Departments – 68 with 1019 participants (1960), 88 with 1380 participants (1971); student constructor bureaus at the Faculties of Mathematics and Physics.
Discussions of the Academic Council on the rights of the University in granting scholarly degrees and titles (1971-1972).
In the 9 Unified Centers (since 1972) is included 90% of the “scientific potential of SU”.
Plan for cooperation with the Moskow State University (1973).
From the beginning of the academic 1978/1979 is started the teaching according to new curricula (elaborated in the Departments and approved by the Faculty Councils and the Academic Council).
Rectors: Dimitar Kosev (1962-1968); Pantalei Zarev (1968-1972); Blagovest Sendov (1973-1979); Ilcho Dimitrov (1979-1981).
* humanities
The Department of Modern General History is divided into two parts: Early Modern and Modern General History and, on the other hand, Old and Medieval History (1964). A Department of Psychology is constituted (1964). Arabian Philology (1964). The Faculty of Philology is divided into two: Faculty of Slavic Philology and Faculty of Western Philology (1965). Departments in the Faculty of Western Philology: English, Roman (French and Italian), Spanish (since 1961), German, Classical, Eastern Languages , Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages. At the Faculty of Slavic Philology: Bulgarian, Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian; Department of Journalism (separated from the Faculty of Slavic Philology in 1974, after becomes Faculty); Department of General and Indo-European Linguistics and Department of Theory of Literature (196…).
The Faculty of Philosophy and History is divided into the Faculty of History and Faculty of Philosophy (1972). Faculty of Education and Faculty of Primary and Pre-school Education are created (mid-70s).
Council for Post-Graduate Qualification, presided by a vice-Rector (1971). Center of Qualification of Teachers (1975, branch of SU).

- other universities and schools of higher education
* general
Institute for Foreign Students (1963). School of Higher Education at the Ministry of the Interior (…), Central Trade Union School.
Veliko Turnovo University “Cyril and Methodius” (since…). Higher Pedagogical Institute in Turnovo. Higher Pedagogical Institute in Shumen.
* humanities
c. elsewhere
- Academy of Sciences
* general
* humanities
In April 1972 with a decision of the Council of Ministers is created the United Centre for Study of History and Training of Specialists (Единен център за наука и подготовка на кадри по история) along with another 8 Centers for Science and Training of Specialists with Higher Education (Центрове за наука и подготовка на кадри с висше образование). The Center of History includes the Institute of History, the Institute for Balkan Studies, the Institute of Archeology, the Ethnographic Institute and the Thracology Institute – all of them parts of the Academy. With the same decision is created a separated Faculty of History in the Sofia University.
* Institutes:
The Institute for Bulgarian History is renamed in the early 60-ies in Institute for History.
The Thracology Institute was founded as a new part of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with a decision of the Council of Ministers from 12.05.1972. His director from the beginning and until 1992 was Prof. Al. Fol.
- associations
d. financing
e. different events (projects, discussions) in (or concerning) the institutions for education and research (fields and way of research and study)
T. Zhivkov criticize the old position of the Party about the existence of a separate Macedonian nation (March 1963)

2. Educational and study policy
a. internal
- legislation
The education is based on the achievements of contemporary science and Marxist-Leninist ideology (Constitution of 1971, art…)
Act for Scholarly Degrees and Titles (197…)
- discussions and decisions of Government and Party leadership
Decree of the CC of the BCP and the Council of Ministers for “Further Development of Bulgarian Science and Increasing of its Role in the Socialist Conctruction” (1960).
The Political Bureau of the CC took decision “for improving the teaching and study of ideological subjects in schools of higher education” (January 1966) (История на Софийския Университет. SU Press, 1988. p. 320)
Decision of IX Congress of BCP for “introduction of computing technologies in different branches of people`s economy” (1966).
Discussion of “the problems of the reform and further development of education” on the Plenum of the CC of the BCP (July 30-31, 1969)(!) (About the significance of the Plenum for the higher education see University of Sofia “St Kliment Ohridski”. The first 120 years. “St Kliment Ohridski” UP, 2008. p. 191-195. According to Popov and Pironkova (Николай Попов, Мария Пиронкова. Образователната система в България. С., 2007) the decisions are labeled “basic principles of the reform of educational system in PR of Bulgaria” (p. 72). At the same place they say that “the educational system after the Act of 1959 is ruled not through laws, but through party documents – decisions of the Plenums of CC of BCP” (p. 72, 74 ))
Plenum of the CC of the BCP on the “problems of science and higher education” (September 1971).
Decree 153 of the Council of Ministers (April 21, 1972) on the integration of science and higher education.
Plenum of the CC of the BCP on the scholarly Unified Centres (the integration of SU and the Academy) (1972) (!)
Decision of the PB of the CC and of the Bureau of the Council of Ministers (July 11, 1978 - the term of education at the universities becomes 5 years) and November 11, 1978 (the nomenclature and the characteristics of the university specialties are approbated) (See Университетът. SU Press, 1999. p. 315).
On a session of the Presidency of the Committee of Culture on 30 May 1978, presided by L. Zhivkova, is adopted the proposed with a reporting paper by the first vice-President of the Committee Prof. d-r Al. Fol “Structure of the National Scientific and Methodic Center for Training and Qualification of Cadres for Ancient Languages and Cultures ”(!) (Central State Archive (ЦДА), ф. 405, оп. 9, а. е. 206, л. 1-17. Report and decision of the session of the Presidency of the CC, 30 May 1978 г. Cited in Еленков. Неосъщественият…)
Plenum of the CC of the BCP (July 1979), where are adopted “Thesises for Development of the Educational Work in PR of Bulgaria” (For a comment see Попов, Пиронкова, p. 72-76. Also Университетът, p. 315).

- coordinating and controlling structures, different from the Ministry of Education
Every year 1/5 of the High Attestation Commission members are newly elected (University of Sofia…, p. 176).
The State Committee of Science and Technical Progress (end of 1962).
“Science and Education” section of the CC of the BCP.
9 Unified Centres (10 faculties of SU and 32 institutes, 13 laboratories and 2 independent sections of the Academy) (Университетът, p. 305). Not the University, but the specialized scientific counsels of the Unified Centre already have the authority to award university degrees (since 1972).
Committee of Culture (L. Zhivkova (the first Chairperson of the Committee) had around her a group of intellectuals, most of whom occupied important positions at state institutions, responsible for the education and the cultural politics in Bulgaria. It seems, that especially influential for the decisions concerning classical education was prof. Fol. For the activity of the circle regarding the general cultural policy some information could be found at the book of Iv. Elenkov Културният фронт… 2009).
- Ministry of Education (autonomy in decision-taking, individual role of some ministers )
Ministers: G. Ganev (1962-1968); St Vasilev (1968-1973); N. Stanev (1973-1977); D. Valcheva (1977-1979); Al. Fol (1979-1986)
- “movements”, awards
Movement for “Technical and Scientific Creation of the Youth” (since the second half of the 60s).
Introduction of the system of summer and autumn brigades in help of the agriculture (since the end of the 60s).
Dimitrov Prize – new regulations. The financial part – 60 000 lv. (5 times the average annual salary) (1960).

- instruments of promoting the Party`s ideology in the education (higher)
* ideological subjects (specialties, departments), schools
From 250 members of the staff, teaching ideological subjects at SU, 9 were professors, 27 associate professors, 1 doctor of Sciences, 65 PhD (148 with no degree)
The subject Scientific Communism is introduced in Sofia University (since 1962 or 1966?).
In 1959/1960 the Department of Foundations of Marxism-Leninism is transformed into the Department of History of the Communist Party of the USSR (in 1967 – Department of Scientific Communism). Department of History of USSR (…?)
Scientific Communism, Philosophy, Political Economy, History of the BCP became obligatory for all schools of higher education. History of the Communist Party of the USSR – obligatory for the students of History in SU, in Higher Pedagogical Institute in Turnovo, in the Political Faculty of the Military Academy “G.S. Rakovski” (since 1966).
In May 1974 the Rector Council adopts program for teaching of ideological disciplines until 1980.
Faculty for Preparation of Lecturers and Propagandists (SU, 1976). Laboratory for Investigation of Personality Development of Students and of Communist Upbringing of Young People (SU, 1976). University Methodical Center for Ideological Sciences (1979?).
Evening Party University (at SU) with four Faculties: Marxist-Leninist Philosophy, Actual Problems of Marxism and Leninism, Political Economy, Aesthetics (70s?).
Higher Party School (…?).
* Communist Party structures
Conference of the Party Committee of the University with theme: “The Class and Party Approach in the Selection, Promotion and Upbringing of the Cadres” (April, 1968)
Plenum of the PC of the University (March 1975) declares measures for raising the methodological qualification of the teachers in the ideological disciplines.
- conflicts and repressions, concerning (higher) educational and studies
Zh. Zhelev (the future President of the Republic) is expelled from the Party for criticizing Lenin`s definition of matter (1965). Sanctions against the assistants of philosophy Ivan Slavov and Asen Ignatov (1968).
Three students in history are sentenced to prison for protesting against the military actions in Czechoslovakia (1968)
Prof. R. Likova is prohibited temporarily from teaching because of positive review about works of a dissident writer (G. Markov) (April 1972 with a decision of the Academic Council).

b. external
- events
Summer Seminar for Bulgarian Language and Literature for Foreign Scholars of Bulgarian and Slavic Studies (since 1963).
First Regional Congress on Balkan Studies in Sofia (August 26-September 1, 1966 ) (T. Zhivkov, R. Maellot - Director General of UNESCO were present) (intention of promoting Bulgaria as centre of the studies on the region)

3. Ideology of the education
a. researches on education (published in the period)
b. principles and aims of education (constitution, laws, Party documents)

V. Political situation

1. Political system
Bulgaria is a socialist state of the people from towns and villages led by the working class. The BCP is the guiding force (Constitution of 1971, art…). The system is called “developed socialism”.
a. legislation
Constitution, adopted on May 18, 1971.
b. discussions and decisions of Government and Party leadership
Plenum of the CC on ideological issues (spring 1962). VIII (November 1962), IX (1966), X (April 1971), XI congress of BCP (March-April 1976)
c. structure
d. principles

2. Governments

3. Party leadership

4. State policy
a. internal
b. external
The cooperation and mutual assistance with USSR is guiding principle of external policy (Constitution of 1971, preamble)

5. Events (projects, discussions), which probably influenced the state policy and the political system
a. internal
Unsuccessful preparation of coup d'etat against T. Zhivkov (1965)
b. external
Berlin (1958-1962) and Caribbean (October 1962) crises. L. Brezhnev becomes leader of USSR after Khrushchev (1964). China`s first nuclear weapon`s test on October 16, 1964. Events in Czechoslovakia (March-August 1968)

VІ. Geopolitical and geo-historical debates

- in the 60s and early 70s the possibility of joining USSR was not excluded
- ethnicity of the population in medieval Bulgaria; status of the lands of contemporary Bulgaria at the time of first invasion (VII c.)

VII. Religious situation

1. Bulgarian Orthodox Church

On 25 July 1971 the Metropolitan of Lovech Maxim is elected for Patriarch of Bulgaria (eparchies, parishes)
2. other Christian denominations
Status of Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant societies
3. other religions
Muslims and Jews
4. Events (projects, discussions), which probably influenced the religious situation
At the third assembly of the World Council of Churches (WCC) in India in 1961 the BOCh was accepted as a member (BOCh left the organization in 1998).


Detailed CVs of alive classicists
CV (until end-seventies) of the classicists, scholars and public figures, who influenced directly or indirectly the classical studies. With book-titles and terms in the original language.


This text was discussed at the Focus Group Fellow Seminar Classical education and classical studies in Bulgaria - The period of 1959-1979
at Collegium Budapest - June 3, 2010

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